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Terms & Expressions

iran marketing research didgaah group


Any individual, organisation, department or division, including those belonging to the same organisation as the client,

responsible for or acting as a supplier on all or part of a research project.


Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing is conducted face-to-face, usually employing laptop computers. The interviewer

is prompted with the question by the computer and the appropriate response codes are keyed in directly according to the

respondent's answers. Routing procedures use these codes to determine which question appears next. Since the data is

entered directly

into the computer, analyses can be produced quickly.


Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing, unlike CAPI, is conducted over the telephone rather than face-to-face.


Computer Assisted Web Interviewing, unlike CAPI, is conducted over the Internet rather than face-to-face.


Any individual, organization, department or division, including those belonging to the same organization as the research

agency, responsible for commissioning or who agree to subscribe to a market research project.


The process of allocating codes to responses collected during fieldwork facilitating analysis of data.


Continuous Research 

A survey conducted on a regular and frequent basis among parallel samples within the same population or a survey in

which the interviews are spread over a long period of time.

Depth Interviews 

This phrase is used to describe a variety of data collection techniques, but mainly for qualitative research (qv) undertaken

with individual respondents rather than groups.

Desk Research 

The collation of existing research results and data from published secondary sources for a specific, often unrelated,



The live collection of primary data from external sources by means of surveys, observation and experiment.

Group Discussions/Focus groups 

A number of respondents gathered together to generate ideas through the discussion of, and reaction to, specific stimuli.

Under the steerage of a moderator, focus groups are often used in exploratory work or when the subject matter involves

social activities, habits and status.

Hall Tests 

A group of respondents are recruited to attend a fixed location, often a large room or hall, where they respond - usually

as individuals - to a set of stimuli.


Contact with a respondent, or group of respondents, in order to obtain information for a research project.


The application of specific assumptions to a set of variable factors and the relationships which exist between them. Used

to experiment with "what if" scenarios, models may be mathematical, graphical or purely verbal.

Multivariate Analysis 

A range of analysis techniques which can examine quantitative data in more depth than can usually be obtained from a

basic cross-analysis of the data by, for example, age, sex and social grade.The essence of this range of approaches is

that the information is analysis in a way that permits patterns to emerge from within the data itself - ie based on the

responses of the informants - rather than being imposed in advance, perhaps incorrectly or simplistically, by the researcher.